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This article was first published in Environmental Law & Management (

The Office for Environmental Protection (OEP) was created by the Environment Act 2021 ("the Act") to replace the role of the European Commission in overseeing implementation of EU environmental law by the UK Government after Brexit. However, as things have turned out, rather than government being the only target of its powers, it has a direct role in overseeing environmental law compliance by all English public authorities, plus holding the government to account on progress with environmental improvement plans and advising on proposed new law. The result is that its interfaces with other bodies are many and varied. This article examines the key relationships between the OEP and other bodies, and how it is anticipated that they will work together.

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